Commercial pilots often mix up airports: reports
Feb. 10, 2014, Washington, D.C. - Do you know the way to San Jose? Quite a few airline pilots apparently don't.
February 10, 2014 By The Associated Press
On at least 150 flights, including one involving a Southwest Airlines
jet last month in Missouri and a jumbo cargo plane last fall in Kansas,
U.S. commercial air carriers have either landed at the wrong airport or
started to land and realized their mistake in time, according to a
search by The Associated Press of government safety databases and media
reports since the early 1990s.
A particular trouble spot is San Jose,
Calif. The list of landing mistakes includes six reports of pilots
preparing to land at Moffett Field, a joint civilian-military airport,
when they meant to go to Mineta San Jose International Airport, about 10
miles to the southeast. The airports are south of San Francisco in
California's Silicon Valley.
"This event occurs several times every
winter in bad weather when we work on Runway 12," a San Jose airport
tower controller said in a November 2012 report describing how an
airliner headed for Moffett after being cleared to land at San Jose. A
controller at a different facility who noticed the impending landing on
radar warned his colleagues with a telephone hotline that piped his
voice directly into the San Jose tower's loudspeakers. The plane was
waved off in time.
In nearly all the incidents, the pilots
were cleared by controllers to guide the plane based on what they could
see rather than relying on automation. Many incidents occur at night,
with pilots reporting they were attracted by the runway lights of the
first airport they saw during descent. Some pilots said they disregarded
navigation equipment that showed their planes slightly off course
because the information didn't match what they were seeing out their
windows — a runway straight ahead.
"You've got these runway
lights, and you are looking at them, and they're saying: 'Come to me,
come to me. I will let you land.' They're like the sirens of the ocean,"
said Michael Barr, a former Air Force pilot who teaches aviation safety
at the University of Southern California.
Using NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting
System, along with news accounts and reports sent to other federal
agencies, the AP tallied 35 landings and 115 approaches or aborted
landing attempts at wrong airports by commercial passenger and cargo
planes over more than two decades.
The tally doesn't include every event.
Many are not disclosed to the media, and reports to the NASA database
are voluntary. The Federal Aviation Administration investigates wrong
airport landings and many near-landings, but those reports aren't
publicly available. FAA officials turned down a request by The
Associated Press for access to those records, saying some may include
information on possible violations of safety regulations by pilots and
might be used in an enforcement action.
NASA, on the other hand, scrubs its
reports of identifying information to protect confidentiality, including
names of pilots, controllers and airlines. While the database is
operated by the space agency, it is paid for by the FAA and its budget
has been frozen since 1997, said database director Linda Connell. As a
result, fewer incident reports are being entered even though the volume
of reports has soared, she said.
The accounts that are available paint a
picture of repeated close calls, especially in parts of the country
where airports are situated close together with runways similarly
angled, including Nashville and Smyrna in Tennessee, Tucson and
Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Arizona, and several airports in South
In a report filed last
July, for example, an airline captain described how his MD-80 was lined
up to land at what he thought was San Antonio International Airport when
a rider in the cockpit's jump seat "shouted out that we were headed for
Lackland Air Force Base." The first officer, who was flying the plane,
quickly aborted the landing and circled around to line up for the
correct airport. The captain later thanked the cockpit passenger and
phoned the San Antonio tower. "They did not seem too concerned," he
reported, "and said this happens rather frequently there."
Continental Airlines' regional carriers
flying from Houston to Lake Charles Regional Airport on the Louisiana
Gulf Coast have at least three times mistakenly landed at the smaller,
nearby Southland Executive field. Both airports have runways painted
with the numbers 15 and 33 to reflect their compass headings. Runways
are angled based on prevailing winds.
The recent wrong airport landings by a
Southwest Airlines Boeing 737 in Missouri and an Atlas Air Boeing 747
freighter in Kansas have heightened safety concerns. The Southwest
pilots stopped just short of a ravine at the end of the short runway in
Hollister, Mo., when they meant to land on a runway twice as long at the
nearby Branson airport.
Of the 35 documented wrong landings, 23
occurred at airports with shorter runways. The runways were longer in
three cases, they were the same length in two and the wrong airport
wasn't identified or its runway length was unavailable in seven.
FAA officials emphasized that cases of
wrong airport landings are rare. There are nearly 29,000 commercial
aircraft flights daily in the U.S., but only eight wrong airport
landings by U.S. carriers in the last decade, according to AP's tally.
None has resulted in death or injury.
"The FAA reviews reported wrong-airport
incidents to determine whether steps such as airfield lighting
adjustments may reduce pilot confusion," the agency said in a statement.
But John Goglia, a former
National Transportation Safety Board member and aviation safety expert,
says the FAA and the NTSB should be concerned. Air crashes are nearly
always the result of a string of safety lapses rather than a single
mistake, he noted. Attempts to land at wrong airports represent "another
step up the ladder toward a riskier operation," he said.
Runway condition is also a worry when a
plane makes a mistaken approach. When an air traffic controller clears a
plane to land on a specific runway, "you know you pretty much have a
clear shot at a couple of miles of smooth concrete," said Rory Kay, a
training captain at a major airline. "If you choose to land somewhere
else, then all bets are off. There could be a bloody big hole in the
middle of the runway. There could be a barrier across it. There could be
vehicles working on it."
In some reports, pilots said they were
saved from making a wrong airport landing by an alert controller. That
was the case for an MD-80 captain who nearly landed his mid-sized
airliner at Page Field, a small airport in Fort Myers, Fla., used mainly
by private pilots, instead of the much larger Southwest Florida
International Airport nearby. A controller caught the mistake in time
and suggested the captain explain the detour by telling passengers the
flight was "touring downtown" Fort Myers.
"I was pretty shaken as to what could
have happened and was very glad to have an understanding, helpful
(controller)," the captain said. "They (controllers) said there would be
no problem with (the FAA) and that this was a common occurrence."